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定語從句的縮略

有些定語從句可以縮略為各種短語,如分詞短語、形容詞短語、名詞短語、介詞短語及動詞不定式短語等,且句意不受影響。我們稱這一語言現象為定語從句的縮略。

研究定語從句的縮略有兩點益處:一是豐富寫作風格,提高語言表達能力,因為它能使人們學會用不同的方法來表達同一意思;二是提高閱讀速度和閱讀理解能力,因為在閱讀中經常會遇到相當于定語從句的各種短語。

一、縮略為分詞短語

有些定語從句可直接略去作主語的關系代詞(who,which,that)和部分謂語(am,is,were等),從而使之縮略為現在分詞短語或過去分詞短語作后置定語。例如:

I know the men(who are)sitting in that car.我認識坐在那輛汽車里的那些人。

The boys helped the people(that were)hurt in the accident.那些男孩子救助了事故中受傷的人們。

The problem(which is)bothering everybody is the lack of money.令大家煩惱的問題是缺少資金。

The book(that has been)given to him is an English novel.給他的那本書是一部英文小說

有些定語從句不能按上述方法直接縮略,而需變動詞為分詞。這類定語從句一般縮略為現在分詞短語,且在縮略時要考慮現在分詞的時態和語態特征。例如:

The man who owns that car will be fined for illegal parking.→

The man owning that car will be fined for illegal parking.那輛汽車的主人將因違章停車而被處以罰款。

Bill,who had taken chemistry in high school,offered to help him.→

Bill,having taken chemistry in high school,offered to help him.比爾在中學學過化學,他主動提出幫助他。

Now,however,the furniture which they are carrying down to the truck feelsvery heavy.→

Now,however,the furniture being carried down to the truck feels veryheavy.然而,此時此刻,正在向卡車處搬運的家具令人覺得很重。

二、縮略為形容詞短語

若定語從句為主系表結構,且表語由形容詞短語充當,可直接略去作主語的關系代詞和聯系動詞,從而使定語從句縮略為形容詞短語作后置定語。例如:

The men(who were)responsible for the administration of the school refusedto consider the matter.該校行政工作負責人拒絕考慮此事。

We said goodbye to Mrs.Long,(who was)still busy at her chores.我們告別了仍在忙于家務的朗太太。

The puppy,(which was)too excited to be calmed,barked furiously.那條小狗激動不已,難以平靜,狂叫個不停。

三、縮略為名詞短語

由名詞短語作表語的非限制性定語從句略去作主語的關系代詞和聯系動詞便成為名詞短語作同位語。例如:

You should have a talk with Mr.Worty,(who is)the adviser to students.你應該和沃爾斯先生——學生顧問談一談。

We finally reached Rio,(which was)the end of our journey.我們最后抵達里約——我們旅行的目的地。

四、縮略為介詞短語

若定語從句為主系表句型,且表語為介詞短語,可略去主語關系代詞和聯系動詞,使之縮略為介詞短語作后置定語。例如:

He spoke to the girl(who was)from New York.他與來自紐約的那個女孩談了話。

此外,若定語從句中含動詞has,have,had我們可以用介詞with/without取替定語從句中主語關系代詞和謂語動詞,使定語從句縮略為介詞with/without短語作后置定語。with適用于肯定的定語從句;without適用于否定的定語從句。例如:

The company wants men who have experience.→

The company wants men with experience.這家公司征聘有經驗的職員。

My father went up to the woman who had a book under her arm.→

My father went up to the women with a book under her arm.我父親朝臂下夾著一本書的那位婦女走去。

The teacher was looking for a rule that did not have an exception.→

The teacher was looking for a rule without an exception.老師在尋找一條無例外的規則。

五、縮略為動詞不定式短語

某些含有情態動詞或助動詞的定語從句可縮略為動詞不定式短語作后置定語。例如:

You need someone who can look after you.→

You need someone to look after you.你需要有人照料。

There are still many obstacles that must be overcome.→

There are still many obstacles to(be)overcome.還有許多障礙需要克服。

The question which will be discussed tomorrow is whether income tax shouldbe increased.→

The question to be discussed tomorrow is whether income tax should be in-creased.明天要討論的問題是所得稅是否應該提高。

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